Course detail

LCF5761 - Pulping Process

Credit hours

In-class work
per week
per week
4 weeks
120 hours

Francides Gomes da Silva Junior

Provide students with detailed knowledge about the complexity of the industrial processes of pulp production. Provide detailed knowledge regarding the main unit operations involved in the pulping processes from the wood yard to the drying of pulp, with emphasis on mass balances. This knowledge is of fundamental importance for evaluating the efficiency of pulping processes, as well as the efficiency and potentiality of innovations related to the pulp and paper sector. Establish the connection between the concepts of pulp and paper production and applied biorefinery.

1. Introduction 1.1. Process soda 1.2.Kraft process 2. Wood yard 2.1. Control 2.2. Dimensions of logs 2.3. Moisture Content 2.3.1. Harvesting time 2.4. Mass Balance 2.4.1. Implications Industrial Forestry Costs 3. Wood preparation 3.1. Debarking 3.1.1. In field Equipment Quality Waste 3.1.2. In industry Equipment Production Quality Control variables Waste 3.1.3. Balance of the Process Volume of wood Volume of waste Efficiency 3.2. Picagem 3.2.1. Objectives 3.2.2. Equipment 3.2.3. Control Variables 3.2.4. Quality of Chips Dimensions 3.2.5. Variables of the raw material 3.2.6. Efficiency and quality 3.3. Classification 3.3.1. Objectives 3.3.2. Control variables 3.3.3. Classification systems 3.3.4. Equipment 3.3.5. Possible effects on the pulping process 3.3.6. Correlations with the pruning process 3.3.7. Disposal of waste Power generation 3.4. Balance of the Process 3.4.1. Wood Consumption 3.4.2. Correlations with wood quality 3.4.3. Correlations with the pulping process 3.4.4. Specific consumption 3.4.5. Effects on production costs 4. Alkaline pulping 4.1. Basic Principles 4.1.1. Main reactions of lignin in soda and kraft processes 4.1.2. Usual terminology in pulping processes 4.1.3. Pulping kinetics Sequence of events in the pulping process Effect of temperature Effect of pulping time Effect of concentration of the pulp liquors Phases of delignification 4.2. Process variables 4.2.1. General considerations 4.2.2. Variables related to the raw material Species Density Storage 4.2.3. Process related variables Impregnation of chips Mechanisms Unit operations Dimensions of the chips Alkaline load Sulfidity Production rhythm 5. Equipment and operation 5.1. Power supply 5.1.1. Conveyor belts 5.1.2.Pneumatic power supply 5.2. Digesters 5.2.1. Continuous and discontinuous digesters Principles of operation Advantages and disadvantages 5.2.2. Heating exchange systems 5.2.3. Feed systems Low pressure feeders High pressure feeders 5.2.4. Discontinuous digesters Equipment Loading of the digester Production programs Power management 5.2.5. Continuous digesters Development history Continuous design projects Steam phase digesters Hydraulic digesters Liquor flows Modified continuous cooking 5.2.6. Discharge of digesters Discharge tank 5.3. Washing of pulp 5.3.1. Objectives 5.3.2. Basic principles of washing brown pulp Dilution factor Washing losses Alkaline loss 5.3.3. Washing efficiency 5.3.4. Consistency of pulp 5.3.5. Countercurrent washing 5.3.6. Washer cylinders Atmospheric Pressurized 5.3.7. Presses 5.3.8. Diffusers 5.3.9. Continuous washers 5.4. Debugging 5.4.1. Objectives 5.4.2. Undesirable constituents in unsprayed pulp 5.4.3. Debugging mechanisms 5.4.4. Control Parameters 5.4.5. Treatment of tailings 6. Unit operations 6.1. Production flowchart 7. Process mass balance 8. Dimensioning of industrial equipment and installations 9. Modifications to the kraft and soda process 9.1. Increase in yield 9.2. Improvement of pulp quality 9.3. Reduction of environmental impacts 9.4. Use of quinone compounds 9.5. Use of surfactants 9.6. Use of polysulfides 10. Energy recovery system and chemical reagents 10.1. Flowchart of the process 10.2. General characteristics 10.3. Multi-effect evaporators 10.4. Recovery boiler 10.5.Causification 10.6. Clarifiers 11. Basics of bleaching 11.1. Main chemical reagents used 11.2. Bleaching sequences 11.3. Pulp characteristics. 12. Fundamentals of Biorefinery

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