Course detail

LET5828 - Transmission of Plant Pathogens by Arthropods

Credit hours

In-class work
per week
per week
15 weeks
120 hours

Joao Roberto Spotti Lopes

To train graduate students, particularly entomologists and plant pathologists, for research, teaching and
extension on arthropod transmission of plant pathogens. To teach basic aspects of pathogen-vectorplant
interactions and their implications on epidemiology and management of associated plant diseases,
and to demonstrate experimental techniques used in transmission studies.

Lectures: 1) Arthropod-microbe interactions that affect crop plants. Types of vector-borne plant pathogens. Overview of plant viruses and their transmission by arthropods. 2) Host selection, mouth apparatus, gut anatomy and feeding behavior in piercing-sucking phytophagous insects. 3) Transmission of plant viruses by hemipteroids: types of vector-virus relationships. Non-persistent transmission. 4) Semi-persistent transmission. Persistent circulative transmission. 5) Persistent propagative transmission. 6) Transmission of plant viruses by beetles and mites. 7) Vector-borne phytopathogenic prokaryotes. Transmission of Xylella fastidiosa. 8) Phytopathogenic mollicutes and associated diseases. 9) Transmission of phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas. 10) Transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter. 11) Fundamentals of epidemiology and management of vector-borne prokaryotes. 12) Control of vector-borne viral diseases. 13) Methods in vector transmission studies. Laboratory classes: Demonstration of methods and equipments for collecting, rearing, handling and confining arthropod vectors in transmission studies. Techniques for vector feeding behavior studies: electrical penetration graph (EPG) and honeydew excretion analyses. Demonstration of virus transmission characteristics in different types of virus-vector relationships (non-persistent, semi-persistent and persistent transmission). Micro-injection technique for inoculation of insect vector with circulative or propagative plant pathogens. Membrane-feeding technique and pathogen acquisition in artificial diets. Techniques for establishing pathogen-free vector colonies. Case studies of management of vector-borne plant pathogens.

Bastianel, M.; Novelli, V.M.; Kitajima, E.W.; Kubo, K.S.; Bassanezi, R.B. & Freitas-Astúa, J. 2010. Citrus Leprosis. Centennial of an Unusual Mite-Virus pathosystem. Plant Disease, 94:284-292.
Bedendo, I.P, Lopes, J.R.S. Impact and Management of Major Phytoplasma Diseases in Brazil. In: C. Y. Olivier et al. (Org.). Sustainability in Plant and Crop Protection. 1ed.: Springer International Publishing, 2019, v. 12, p. 251-268.
Bertaccini, A., Weintraub, P., Rao, G. P., Mori, N. 2018. Phytoplasmas: Plant Pathogenic Bacteria – II Transmission and Management of Phytoplasma - Associated Diseases. Springer.
Bragard, C.; Caciagli, P; Lemaire, O.; Lopez-Moya, J.; MacFarlane, S.; Peters, D.; Susi,P. & Torrance, L. 2013. Status and Prospects of Plant Virus Control Through Interference with Vector Transmission. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. ,51:177-201.
Brown, J. K. 2016. Vector-mediated transmission of plant pathogens. APS Press. 496p.
Carmo-Sousa, M., Cortés, M.T.B., Lopes, J.R.S. Understanding psyllid transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter as a basis for managing huanglongbing. Tropical Plant Pathology, v. 45, p. 1, 2020.
Coletta-Filho, H.D., Castillo, A. I., Laranjeira, F.F., Andrade, E.C., Silva, N.T.S, Souza, A.A.; Esteves, M.B., Almeida, R.P.P, Lopes, J.R.S. Citrus Variegated Chlorosis: an overview of 30 years of research and disease management. Tropical Plant Pathology, v. 45, p. 1-17, 2020.
Freitas-Astúa, J.; Ramos-González, P.L.; Arena, G.D.; Tassi, A.D.; Kitajima, E.W. Brevipalpus-transmitted viruses: parallelism beyond a common vector or convergent evolution of distantly related pathogens? Current Opinion in Virology, 33: 66-73, 2018.
Gahave, K.R.; Gautam, S., Rasmussen, D.A.; and Srinivasan, R. Aphid transmission of Potyvirus: The largest plant-infecting RNA virus genus. Viruses 12: 773, 2020. doi:10.3390/v12070773
Gray, S.; Cilia, M.; Ghanim, M. Circulative, “Nonpropagative” Virus Transmission: An Orchestra of Virus, Insect-, and Plant-Derived Instruments. In pages 141-199: Maramorosch, K.; Murphy, F.A. (eds.).
Advances in Virus Research, Academic Press, V. 89, 2014.
Lopes, J.R.S., Marques, R.N. & Yamamoto, P.T. 2008. Subsídios para o manejo de insetos vetores em citros. Pages: 209-235 In: Manejo integrado de pragas e vetores em citros. P.T. Yamamoto (Ed.), CP2, Piracicaba, SP. 336p.
Oliveira, C.M. de; Lopes, J.R.S.; Querino, R.B. 2017. Rearing techniques of corn leafhopper to transmission studies and biological control. pp. 153-176-116 In: Diseases in maize: insect vetors, mollicute and viruses. C.M. de Oliveira & E. de O. Sabato (Technical Editors). Brasília-DF: Embrapa. 271p.
Orlovskis, Z.; Canale, M.C.; Thole, V.; Pecher, P.; Lopes, J.R.S.; Hogenhout, S. Insect-borne plant pathogenic bacteria: getting a ride goes beyond physical contact. Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 9, p. 16-23, 2015.
Perilla-Henao, L.N,; Casteel, C.L. 2016. Vector-borne bacterial plant pathogens:interactions with Hemipteran insects and plants. Frontiers in Plant Science 7: 1163. 2016
Rao, G. P., Bertaccini, A., Fiore, N., Liefting, L.W. 2018. Phytoplasmas: Plant Pathogenic Bacteria – I Characterisation and Epidemiology of Phytoplasma - Associated Diseases. Springer.
Rotenberg, D.; Whitfield, A.E. Molecular interactions between tospoviruses and thrips vectors. Current Opinion in Virology, 33: 191-197, 2018.
Webster, C.G.; Pichon, E., van Munster, M.; Monsion, B.; Deshoux, M.; Gargani, D.; Calevro, F.; Jimenez, J.; Moreno, A.; Krenz, B.; Thompson, J.R.; Perry, K.L.; Fereres, A.; Blanc, S.; Uzest, M. 2018. Identification of plant virus receptor candidates in the stylets of their aphid vectors. J Virol 92:e00432-18.
Whitfield, A.E.; Falk, B.W.; Rotenberg, D. Insect vector-mediated transmission of plant viruses. Virology, V. 479–480, p. 278-289, 2015,
Whitfield, A.E.; Rotenberg, D. Disruption of insect transmission of plant viruses. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 8:79-87, 2015.
Zhou, J.S.; Drucker, M.; Ng, J.CK. Direct and indirect influences of virus–insect vector–plant interactions on non-circulative, semi-persistent virus transmission. Current Opinion in Virology, 33: 129-136, 2018.